The Great Scot who won the 2015 Nobel Prize for Economics 


Sir Angus Stewart Deaton, FBA (born 19 October 1945) is a British-American economist. In 2015, he was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare.Deaton was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and educated as a foundation scholar at Fettes College. He earned his B.A., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees at the University of Cambridge, the last with a 1975 thesis entitled Models of consumer demand and their application to the United Kingdom, where he was later a fellow at Fitzwilliam College and a research officer working with Richard Stone and Terry Barker in the Department of Applied Economics.

In 1976 Deaton took up post at the University of Bristol as Professor of Econometrics. During this period, he completed a significant portion of his most influential work. In 1978, he became the first ever recipient of the Frisch Medal, an award given by the Econometric Society every two years to an applied paper published within the past five years in Econometrica. In 1980, his paper on how demand for various consumption goods depends on prices and income was published in The American Economic Review. This paper has since been hailed as one of the twenty most influential articles published in the journal in its first hundred years.

In 1983, he left the University of Bristol for Princeton University. He is the Dwight D. Eisenhower Professor of International Affairs and Professor of Economics and International Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (WWS) and the Department of Economics at Princeton. He holds both British and American citizenship.

In October 2015 it was announced that Deaton had won that year’s Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The BBC reported that Deaton was “delighted” and that he described himself as “someone who’s concerned with the poor of the world and how people behave, and what gives them a good life”. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said that economic policy intended to reduce poverty could only be designed once individuals’ consumption choices were understood, saying, “More than anyone else, Angus Deaton has enhanced this understanding. By linking detailed individual choices and aggregate outcomes, his research has helped transform the fields of microeconomics, macroeconomics, and development economics”. New York University economist William Easterly said, “What was impressive about this Nobel is how many different fields Angus has contributed to”. Easterly noted Deaton’s bravery in the face of the political aspects of his research area and the “tortuous details” involved in his work, adding: “No one accuses him of having an agenda on these questions, and there are a lot of people in this field who do have an agenda”.

The Great Scot whose work on nucleotides won him the 1957 Nobel Prize for Chemistry


Sir Alexander Robertus Todd was born in Glasgow on October 2, 1907, the elder son of Alexander Todd, a business man of that city, and his wife Jean Lowrie. He was educated at Allan Glen’s School and Glasgow University, where he took his B.Sc. degree in 1928 and, after a short initial research training with T.S. Patterson he proceeded to the University of Frankfurt-on-Maine. Here he studied under W. Borsche and obtained his Ph.D. (Dr.Phil.nat.) in 1931 for a thesis on the chemistry of the bile acids.
Returning to England he worked from 1931-1934 on anthocyanins and other colouring matters with Sir Robert Robinson, the Nobel Prize winner, and took a Ph.D. degree at Oxford University in 1933.

Todd went back to Scotland in 1934 when he joined the staff of Edinburgh University under G. Barger. Two years later, i.e. in 1936 he moved to the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Chelsea, and became Reader in Biochemistry in the University of London in 1937.

In 1938 he was appointed as Sir Samuel Hall Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Chemical Laboratories of the University of Manchester, which position he held until 1944, when he accepted an appointment as Professor of Organic Chemistry at Cambridge University and Fellow of Christ’s College. 

Todd took considerable interest in international scientific affairs; he was President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, and Chairman of the British National Committee for Chemistry. He served on many Government Committees and in 1952 was elected Chairman of the British Government’s Advisory Council on Scientific Policy. He was a Managing Trustee of the Nuffield Foundation.

The main subjects of Todd’s researches were the chemistry of natural products of biological importance and, in addition to the nucleotide and nucleotide coenzyme studies described in his Nobel Lecture, the chemistry of vitamins B1, E and B12, the constituents of Cannabis species, insect colouring matters, factors influencing obligate parasitism and various mould products.

Knighted in 1954, he was raised to the Peerage in March, 1962, being created Baron Todd of Trumpington.

The Great Scot whose work on nutrition won him the 1949 Nobel Peace Prize


John Boyd Orr (September 23, 1880-June 25, 1971) was born in Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, Scotland. His father, R.C. Orr, was a pious and intelligent man whose sudden enthusiasms led to frequent reversals of fortune, but, although his finances were often depleted, he and his wife and their seven children enjoyed a pleasant life in their rural community. Having begun his education in the village school, John at the age of thirteen was sent to Kilmarnock Academy, twenty miles away, but he was more interested in the life of the navvies and quarrymen who worked in his father’s quarry than in his education and so was returned to the village school. There he became a member of the staff as a «pupil teacher», earning £20 a year by the time he was eighteen.
Aided by scholarships, he was able to attend simultaneously a teachers’ training college and Glasgow University. Of these student days he says in his autobiography that he worked hard in the arts curriculum but that his most vivid recollections are of the sights and sounds of the old Glasgow slums which he would prowl on Saturday nights1.

Finding the three years he spent teaching in a secondary school neither financially profitable nor intellectually satisfying, he returned to Glasgow University in 1905, enrolling for a degree in medicine and for one in the biological sciences. Degrees in hand in record time, he served as a ship’s surgeon for four months and for six weeks as a replacement for a vacationing doctor, but he forsook the practice of medicine for research, accepting a two-year Carnegie research fellowship in physiology.

On April 1, 1914, Dr. Boyd Orr arrived in Aberdeen to assume direction of the Nutrition Institute, only to be told that there was no Institute in reality, only an approved scheme of research. Within a month, Boyd Orr had drawn up plans for an impressive research facility, too impressive, indeed, to be financed. The compromise he made is symbolic of the nature of the man: he was willing to delay the building of the total structure provided that the first wing be made of granite, not of wood as originally suggested.

His work was interrupted by World War I during which he served first in the Royal Army Medical Corps, earning two decorations for bravery in action, then in the Royal Navy, and finally, simultaneously in both, for he was loaned by the Navy to the Army to do research in military dietetics.

After the war Boyd Orr returned to the Institute and in the next decade or so, put to work a hitherto unsuspected talent for money raising. The first new building of Rowett Research Institute – the name now given to the Institute in honor of a major donor – was dedicated by Queen Mary in 1922; there followed the Walter Reid Library in 1923-1924, the thousand-acre John Duthie Webster Experimental Farm in 1925, Strathcona House, to accommodate research workers and visiting scientists, in 1930. In 1931 he founded and became editor of Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews.

Time-consuming as his various administrative duties were, he was still able to direct fundamental research in nutrition, primarily in animal nutrition in these early days of the Institute. His influential Minerals in Pastures and Their Relation to Animal Nutrition (1929) was published in this period. During the 1930’s, however, after extensive experiments with milk in the diet of mothers, children, and the underprivileged, and after large-scale surveys of nutritional problems in many nations throughout the world, Boyd Orr’s interests swung to human nutrition, not only as a researcher but also as a propagandist for healthful diets for all peoples everywhere. His report of 1936, Food, Health and Income, revealed the «appalling amount of malnutrition» among the people of Great Britain regardless of economic status2 and became the basis for the later British policy on food during World War II, which he helped to formulate as a member of Churchill’s Scientific Committee on Food Policy.

At war’s end, Boyd Orr, aged sixty-five, retired from Rowett Institute, but accepted three new positions: a three-year term as rector of Glasgow University, a seat in the Commons representing the Scottish universities, and the post of director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Boyd Orr found his work with the FAO exasperating because of the FAO’s lack of authority and funds, but he energetically pursued every avenue for improving the world production and equitable distribution of food. In 1946, under the aegis of the FAO, he set up an International Emergency Food Council, with thirty-four member nations, to meet the postwar food crisis. He traveled extensively throughout the world trying to get support for a comprehensive food plan and was bitterly disappointed when his proposal for the establishment of a World Food Board failed in 1947 when neither Britain nor the United States would vote for it.

Believing that the FAO could not, at that point, become a spearhead for a movement to achieve world unity and peace, Boyd Orr resolved to resign as director-general and to go into business. Within three years he earned a bigger net income from directorships than he had ever had from scientific research, and with capital gains made on the Stock Exchange, he established a comfortable personal estate. It was symbolic of this period of his life that he should have been informed of his Nobel Peace Prize award by his banker. The prize money, however, he donated to the National Peace Council, the World Movement for World Federal Government, and various other such organizations.
In the years following the Second World War, Boyd Orr was associated with virtually every organization that has agitated for world government, in many instances devoting his considerable administrative and propagandistic skills to the cause.«The most important question today», he says in his autobiography, «is whether man has attained the wisdom to adjust the old systems to suit the new powers of science and to realize that we are now one world in which all nations will ultimately share the same fate.

John Boyd Orr, himself a scientist-adjuster of old systems, died at his home in Scotland in June, 1971, at the age of ninety.

The Great Scot who invented the cloud chamber and won the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics


Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (born Feb. 14, 1869, Glencorse, Midlothian, Scot.—died Nov. 15, 1959, Carlops, Peeblesshire) Scottish physicist who, with Arthur H. Compton, received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1927 for his invention of the Wilson cloud chamber, which became widely used in the study of radioactivity, X rays, cosmic rays, and other nuclear phenomena.
Wilson began studying clouds as a meteorologist in 1895. In an effort to duplicate the effects of certain clouds on mountaintops, he devised a way of expanding moist air in a closed container. The expansion cooled the air so that it became supersaturated and moisture condensed on dust particles.

Wilson noted that when he used dust-free air the air remained supersaturated and that clouds did not form until the degree of supersaturation reached a certain critical point. He believed that in the absence of dust the clouds formed by condensing on ions (charged atoms or molecules) in the air. Hearing of the discovery of X rays, he thought that ion formation as a result of such radiation might bring about more intensive cloud formation. He experimented and found that radiation left a trail of condensed water droplets in his cloud chamber. Perfected by 1912, his chamber proved indispensable in the study of nuclear physics and eventually led to the development (by Donald A. Glaser in 1952) of the bubble chamber.

From 1916 Wilson became involved in the study of lightning, and in 1925 he was appointed Jacksonian professor of natural history at the University of Cambridge. Applying his studies of thunderstorms, he devised a method of protecting British wartime barrage balloons from lightning, and in 1956 he published a theory of thunderstorm electricity.

The Great Scot who discovered the noble gases and won the 1904 Nobel Prize for Chemistry


William Ramsay was born in Glasgow on October 2, 1852, the son of William Ramsay, C.E. and Catherine, née Robertson. He was a nephew of the geologist, Sir Andrew Ramsay.
Until 1870 he studied in his native town, following this with a period in Fittig’s laboratory at Tübingen until 1872. While there his thesis on orthotoluic acid and its derivatives earned him the degree of doctor of philosophy.

On his return to Scotland in 1872 he became assistant in chemistry at the Anderson College in Glasgow and two years later secured a similar position at the University there. In 1880 he was appointed Principal and Professor of Chemistry at University College, Bristol, and moved on in 1887 to the Chair of Inorganic Chemistry at University College, London, a post which he held until his retirement in 1913.

Ramsay’s earliest works were in the field of organic chemistry. Besides his doctor’s dissertation, about this period he published work on picoline and, in conjunction with Dobbie, on the decomposition products of the quinine alkaloids (1878-1879). From the commencement of the eighties he was chiefly active in physical chemistry, his many contributions to this branch of chemistry being mostly on stoichiometry and thermodynamics. To these must be added his investigations carried on with Sidney Young on evaporation and dissociation (1886-1889) and his work on solutions of metals (1889).

It was however in inorganic chemistry that his most celebrated discoveries were made. As early as 1885-1890 he published several notable papers on the oxides of nitrogen and followed those up with the discovery of argon, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon. Led to the conclusion by different paths and, at first, without working together, both Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay succeeded in proving that there must exist a previously unknown gas in the atmosphere. They subsequently worked in their separate laboratories on this problem but communicated the results of their labours almost daily. At the meeting of the British Association in August 1894, they announced the discovery of argon.

While seeking sources of argon in the mineral kingdom, Ramsay discovered helium in 1895. Guided by theoretical considerations founded on Mendeleev’s periodic system, he then methodically sought the missing links in the new group of elements and found neon, krypton, and xenon (1898).

Yet another discovery of Ramsay (in conjunction with Soddy), the importance of which it was impossible to foresee, was the detection of helium in the emanations of radium (1903).

In 1881 Ramsay married Margaret, the daughter of George Stevenson Buchanan. They had one son and one daughter. His recreations were languages and travelling.

Sir William Ramsay died at High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, on July 23, 1916.

The Great Scot whose attempts to secure disarmament in the 1930s won him the Nobel Peace Prize of 1934


Arthur Henderson (September 13, 1863-October 20, 1935) was born in Glasgow, the son of David Henderson, a manual worker. When his father died in 1872, leaving the family in poverty, Arthur left school to work in a photographer’s shop. Upon his mother’s remarriage the family moved to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where Arthur returned to school for three years. Aged twelve, he became an apprentice at the Robert Stephenson and Sons’ General Foundry Works. The dinner hour in the foundry, with its lively discussions, became his classroom and the newspapers his textbooks. Having joined the Ironfounders’ Union at the age of eighteen when he achieved journeyman status, he was elected within a short time secretary of the Newcastle lodge and for the remainder of his life held office continuously in his union at the local, district, or national level.
In the course of his work in the Methodist church, which he had joined as a young man, Henderson met Eleanor Watson and married her in 1888. They had a daughter and three sons. The eldest of the three sons, all of whom served in the armed forces in World War I, was killed in action; the other two became the father’s colleagues in the House of Commons in the last decade or so of his life.

The skill in speaking that he developed at the meetings of the Tyneside Debating Society and in his work as a lay preacher, helped to launch him on a political career begun with his election to the post of town councillor in 1892. In the same year he was chosen by his union to be their district delegate, a full-time salaried position. In 1896 he moved his family to Darlington; there, he was elected to the Durham County Council and in 1903 became the first Labor mayor of Darlington.
From 1900 to the close of his life Henderson put his talent for organizing at the disposal of Labor. He attended the London conference which set up the Labor Representation Committee in 1900, won election to Parliament in 1903 under the sponsorship of that committee, chaired the conference in 1906 which formed the Labor Party, acted as its secretary from 1911 to 1934, served several times as the chairman of the party’s executive committee, in 1918 took the lead in revising the party’s constitution so as to open its membership to those who by conviction, not necessarily vocation, wanted to join the party, and created a political machinery which made the party a power in the political life of the nation.

Henderson himself was almost continuously in Parliament after 1903, yet his electoral career was scarcely a smooth one, for in ten tries at the polls in general elections he lost five and won five but regained a seat after each of the losses by winning by-elections. Henderson was chairman of the parliamentary Labor Party, chief whip three times, president of the Board of Education (1915-1916) and paymaster-general (1916) in Asquith’s government, and in Lloyd George’s government a minister without portfolio, acting primarily as an adviser on labor questions.

As World War I drew to a close, Henderson’s thinking took on an international dimension. In 1917 he went to Russia as an official observer for the British government; in 1918 he broke with Lloyd George over his refusal to send delegates to a proposed international conference of socialists, a conference which, as it turned out, was never convened. In the same year he initiated the call for a conference at Bern, with delegates from the defeated and neutral nations joining those of the victorious, to formulate recommendations to send to Versailles where the representatives of the Allies were assembling to draw up the terms of the peace. In 1923 he was chairman of the Labor and Socialist International at Hamburg. In 1924 he was home secretary in MacDonald’s cabinet, but spent most of his energy on two international problems: the implementation of the Dawes Plan for German reparations and the drafting of the Geneva Protocol on the ultimate settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

With this background, he was, therefore, quite prepared to accept the office of foreign secretary when MacDonald offered it to him in 1929 upon forming his second government. In his two years in office he brought about Britain’s resumption of diplomatic relations with Russia, severed since 1917, maneuvered acceptance of the Young Plan for German reparations by the creditor nations and Germany, arranged with Briand for the evacuation of French troops from the Rhineland prior to the date stipulated in the Versailles Treaty, furthered the cause of Egyptian independence, actually achieved in 1936, and attended the entire sessions of the Tenth and Eleventh Assemblies of the League of Nations.

Henderson became the embodiment of the League’s disarmament effort. In January, 1931, he prodded the Council into completing preparations for the calling of a Disarmament Conference; in May of that year, he was unanimously approved as president of the conference; on February 2, 1932, he presided over the opening session. Despite his determined and persistent work, the conference failed. The world was stricken with an economic depression; Germany, under Hitler, withdrew from the conference in October, 1933; Henderson was barely able to hold the conference together in 1934, but even as late as December of that year at the Nobel ceremonies in Oslo, he optimistically insisted that the conference was still very much alive. The failure of the conference foreshadowed World War II, but his biographer, Mary A. Hamilton, states1, «If any man is clear of responsibility, it is Arthur Henderson.»

Henderson was a strong man. His powerful physical presence was the outer counterpart of his inner moral integrity. He had the qualities, Clement Attlee remarked in his eulogy on Henderson in the House of Commons2, needed «in a working ironworker to rise to preside over the Assembly of the nations».

The Great Scot whose development of beta-blockers won him the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988


Sir James Black (born June 14, 1924, Uddingston, Scot.—died March 21, 2010) Scottish pharmacologist who (along with George H. Hitchings and Gertrude B. Elion) received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for his development of two important drugs, propranolol and cimetidine.

Black earned a medical degree from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland in 1946. He taught at various universities for the next 10 years and then joined Imperial Chemical Industries as a senior pharmacologist in 1958. He became head of biological research at Smith Kline & French Laboratories in 1964, and he joined the Wellcome Research Laboratories as director of therapeutic research in 1978. From 1984 he was professor of analytical pharmacology at King’s College, London, becoming emeritus in 1993. From 1992 to 2006 Black served as chancellor of the University of Dundee in Scotland, and, in honour of his work, the university built the Sir James Black Centre, a research facility for the investigation of cancer, tropical diseases, and diabetes. Knighted in 1981, Black became a member of the Order of Merit in 2000.

Black’s drug discoveries arose out of his systematic research on the interactions between certain cell receptors in the body and chemicals in the bloodstream that attach to them. Black wanted to find a drug that would relieve angina pectoris—i.e., the spasms of intense pain felt in the chest when the heart is not receiving enough oxygen.

It was known that beta receptors in the heart muscle, when stimulated by the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, cause the heartbeat to quicken and increase the strength of the heart’s contractions, thus increasing that organ’s oxygen requirement. Black developed a drug that would block the beta receptor sites, thus preventing epinephrine and norepinephrine from attaching to them. The resulting inhibition of the hormones’ excitatory effects reduced the heart’s demand for oxygen and could thus help relieve anginal pain. Other beta-blocking agents were subsequently developed to treat heart attacks, hypertension, migraines, and other conditions.
Black used a similar approach to develop a drug treatment for stomach and duodenal ulcers, which are largely caused by the stomach’s oversecretion of gastric acids. He developed a drug that could block the histamine receptors that stimulate the secretion of gastric acid in the stomach, and the new drug, cimetidine, revolutionized the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

The Great Scot who created the sour mash process which led to the creation of bourbon whiskey


Born in Inverness, Doctor James C. “Jim” Crow (1789–1856) may be loosely credited as the perfecter of the sour mash process used in creating bourbon whiskey.
Dr. Crow, a Scottish chemist-physician, graduated in medicine from Edinburgh University in 1822. He moved from Philadelphia to Kentucky in 1823 and began working for a distiller, bringing his scientific and medical training to the process.According to The Kentucky Encyclopedia, Crow began experimenting in 1835 at his Glenn’s Creek Distillery in Woodford County Kentucky with a saccharimeter to measure sugar content. This litmus paper test to determine the mash acidity resulted in Crow’s decision to age his “Old Crow” whiskey before selling it.

Crow moved to the town of Millville and for the next twenty years he was in charge of the Old Oscar Pepper Distillery, now known as Woodford Reserve. Later he went to work for the Johnson Distillery. That distillery eventually became Old Taylor. He worked there until his death in 1856.

The Great Scot who founded HSBC


Sir Thomas Sutherland was a Scottish banker and politician, initially a Liberal Party then a Liberal Unionist. He founded The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation which was the founder member of HSBC Group and directed the P&O Company.
Sutherland was the son of Robert Sutherland of Aberdeen. Educated at Aberdeen University, he got his start clerking in the London office of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O). Soon after, P&O promoted Sutherland to superintendent, assigning him to Hong Kong to manage the firm’s Asian operation. In 1863 he became the first chairman of the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock. In order to help finance the burgeoning trade between China and Europe, and explore the potential for China–United States trade, Sutherland established The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation in 1865 and became its first vice-chairman. He was appointed member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong from 1865 to 1866. In 1872 he was appointed Managing Director of P & O.

In November 1884, Sutherland was elected at a by-election as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Greenock. A Liberal, he was re-elected in 1885, but when the Liberals split over Irish Home Rule he joined the breakaway Liberal Unionist Party. He was re-elected as a Liberal Unionist in 1886, but lost the seat at the 1892 general election. However, he was reinstated when his opponent was unseated on petition, and held the seat until he stood down at the 1900 general election.

Sutherland married Alice Macnaught in 1880, who predeceased him in 1920, as well by their two sons at the battlefield. Sutherland died in London in 1922.

The Sutherland Street in Sheung Wan, Hong Kong was named after him.

The Great Scot who discovered insulin


John James Rickard Macleod was born on September 6, 1876 at Cluny, near Dunkeld, Perthshire, Scotland. He was the son of the Rev. Robert Macleod. When later the family moved to Aberdeen, Macleod went to the Grammar School there and later entered the Marischal College of the University of Aberdeen to study medicine.
In 1898 he took his medical degree with honours and was awarded the Anderson Travelling Fellowship, which enabled him to work for a year at the Institute for Physiology at the University of Leipzig.

In 1899 he was appointed Demonstrator of Physiology at the London Hospital Medical School under Professor Leonard Hill and in 1902 he was appointed Lecturer in Biochemistry at the same College. In that year he was awarded the McKinnon Research Studentship of the Royal Society, which he held until 1903, when he was appointed Professor of Physiology at the Western Reserve University at Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

During his tenure of this post he was occupied by various war duties and acted, for part of the winter session of 1916, as Professor of Physiology at McGill University, Montreal.

In 1918 he was elected Professor of Physiology at the University of Toronto, Canada. Here he was Director of the Physiological Laboratory and Associate Dean of the Faculty of Medicine.

In 1928 he was appointed Regius Professor of Physiology at the University of Aberdeen, a post which he held, together with that of Consultant Physiologist to the Rowett Institute for Animal Nutrition, in spite of failing health, until his early death.

Macleod’s name will always be associated with his work on carbohydrate metabolism and especially with his collaboration with Frederick Banting and Charles Best in the discovery of insulin. For this work on the discovery of insulin, in 1921, Banting and Macleod were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for 1923.

Macleod had, before this discovery, been interested in carbohydrate metabolism and especially in diabetes since 1905 and he had published some 37 papers on carbohydrate metabolism and 12 papers on experimentally produced glycosuria. Previously he had followed the earlier great work of von Mering and Minkowski, which has been published in 1889, and although he believed that the pancreas was the organ involved, he had not been able to prove exactly what part it played. Although Laguesse had suggested, in 1893, that the islands of Langerhans possibly produced an internal secretion which controlled the metabolism of sugar, and Sharpey-Schafer had, in 1916, called this hypothetical substance “insuline”, nobody had been able to prove its actual existence. Others had made extracts of the pancreas, some of which had proved to be active in affecting the metabolism of sugar, but none of these products had been found reliable, until Banting and Best, jointly with Macleod, could announce their great discovery in February 1922. The process of manufacturing the pancreatic extract which could be used for the treatment of human patients was patented; the financial proceeds of the patent were given to the British Medical Research Council for the Encouragement of Research, the discoverers receiving no payment at all. Subsequently, the active principle of these earlier pancreatic extracts, insulin, was isolated in pure form by John Jacob Abel in 1926, and eventually it became available as a manufactured product.
Earlier, in 1908, Macleod had done experimental work on the possible part played by the central nervous system in the causation of hyperglycaemia and in 1932 he returned to this subject, basing his work on the experiments done by Claude Bernard on puncture diabetes, and Macleod then concluded, from experiments done on rabbits, that stimulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver occurred by way of the parasympathetic nervous system.

Macleod also did much work in fields other than carbohydrate metabolism. His first paper, published in 1899, when he was working at the London Hospital, had been on the phosphorus content of muscle and he also worked on air sickness, electric shock, purine bases, the chemistry of the tubercle bacillus and the carbamates.
In addition he wrote 11 books and monographs, among which were his Recent Advances in Physiology (with Sir Leonard Hill) (1905); Physiology and Biochemistry of Modern Medicine, which had reached its 9th edition in 1941; Diabetes: its Pathological Physiology (1925); Carbohydrate Metabolism and Insulin (1926); and his Vanuxem lectures, published in 1928 as the Fuel of Life.

In 1919 Macleod was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, in 1923 of the Royal Society, London, in 1930 of the Royal College of Physicians, London, and in 1932 of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. During 1921-1923 he was President of the American Physiological Society, and during 1925-1926 of the Royal Canadian Institute. He held honorary doctorates of the Universities of Toronto, Cambridge, Aberdeen and Pennsylvania, the Western Reserve University and the Jefferson Medical College. He was an honorary fellow of the Accademia Medica, Rome, and also a corresponding member of the Medical and Surgical Society, Bologna, the Societá Medica Chirurgica, Rome, and the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina, Halle, and Foreign Associate Fellow of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia.

Macleod was a very successful teacher and director of research. His lucid lectures were delivered in an attractive manner and his pupils and research associates found him a sympathetic and stimulating worker, who demanded exact work and the humility that was a feature of his character. He would not tolerate careless work. He was much interested in the development of medical education and especially in the introduction of scientific methods of investigation into clinical work.

Outside the laboratory he was keenly interested in golf and gardening and the arts, especially painting. A sensitive, loyal and affectionate man of engaging personality, his serene spirit met with courage and optimism the painful and crippling disabilities which troubled the final years of his busy life.

Macleod was married to Mary McWalter. He died on March 16, 1935.